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Entries Tagged as 'affective objectives'

Discovering Instructional Design 5: Stages in the Affective Taxonomy

May 27, 2009 by Michael Hanley · Comments Off · affective domain, affective objectives, affective taxonomy, example, instructional design, ISD, Krathwohl, learner motivation, systems approach

Goal statements (sometimes called purpose statements) are often used with the Affective Taxonomy. They answer the question, “Why does the student need to learn this material?” Goal statements reflect the instructional designer’s empathy for the learner’s motivation and attitudes, which should enhance the outcome of the lesson (see Table 1).

Table 1 Levels off the Affective Domain

Affective Domain

Level

Definition

Example

Receiving

Being aware of or attending to something in the environment.

Person would listen to a lecture or presentation about a structural model related to human behavior.

Responding

Showing some new behaviors as a result of experience. To act or comply; to perform an act willingly and to obtain satisfaction from it.

The individual would answer questions about the model or might rewrite lecture notes the next day.

Valuing

Showing some definite involvement or commitment. To accept, prefer or commit oneself because of its perceived worth or value; to appreciate; defend; judge; praise; volunteer

The individual might begin to think how education may be modified to take advantage of some of the concepts presented in the model and perhaps generate a set of lessons using some of the concepts presented

Organization

Integrating a new value into one’s general set of values, giving it some ranking among one’s general priorities. To compare, relate and synthesize values into one’s own value system; question; dispute.

This is the level at which a person would begin to make long-range commitments to arranging his or her instruction and assessment relative to the model

Characterization by Value

Acting consistently with the new value. To integrate values or value systems into one’s style or philosophy of life.

At this highest level, a person would be firmly committed to utilizing the model to develop, select, or arrange instruction and would become known for that action.

Using behavioral terms, samples of performances are constructed that will provide evidence that the students have achieved the purpose.

For example

Original objective:
“Upon completion of tasks in the auto repair shop, replenish supplies to maintain the stock levels specified in the shop stock handbook.”

Amended to include an affective goal:
“Upon completion of tasks in the auto repair shop, replenish supplies to maintain the stock levels specified in the shop stock handbook without supervision”.

If learners meet this objective “without supervision,” no one will watch them, pressure them, or remind them to replenish supplies; they must now complete this task on their own. If learners meet such an objective, they are functioning at the Responding level of attitude, or perhaps at an even higher level.

Other goal statements include:

    • Voluntarily takes action to…
    • Without being told to do…
    • Without promise of reward…
    • Without threat of punishment…
    • In spite of social pressure to do otherwise…
    • Initiates on his or her own…

Notice the last three of these phrases. If learners undertake an activity in their own time, initiate something on their own, or do something in spite of social pressure to do otherwise, they are displaying behavior at the Valuing level of the taxonomy (and perhaps higher).

Short courses and brief exposure to material can be expected to change attitudes only in small ways, and only at the lower affective levels (receiving, responding, and, possibly, valuing).

Changes at the higher affective levels (valuing, organization, and characterization) require much longer exposures – an entire course rather than a lesson, or a program of instruction: these are more difficult to evaluate and measure, typically at Kirkpatrick Level Three. We cannot be sure a particular attitude characterizes a person if the only measure or index used is a formative or summative assessment.

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